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Basics of Wellsite Pressure Evaluation
What is Formation Pressure Evaluation?
Why pressure evaluation is important
Formation Pressure Fundamentals
Units of Measurement
Fluid, Hydrostatic and Pore Pressures
Pressure Gradients and Equivalent Mud Weights
Expressions of Stress
Relationship between vertical and horizontal stresses
Effective or Matrix Stresses
Manifestations of Stress Imbalance
Rock Strength and Stress
Stress Related Drilling Problems
Horizontal or High Angle Well Direction and Stress
Horizontal Stress Problems in the North Sea
Wellbore Stability Analysis
Overburden Pressures and Gradients
Overburden Pressure, S
Calculating Formation Densities
Overburden Pressure Gradients
Overburden Pressure Gradients and ERD
Fracture Pressures and Gradients
Influences on Fracture Pressure
Estimation of Fracture Pressure and Gradient
Pressure Test Variants, FIT, XLOT
Calculating Fracture Pressure – Rest of Well
Fracture Pressure Gradient – Role in Well Planning
Life of Field
Summary for fracture pressure calculations
Plotting Formation Pressures
Equivalent Mud Weight Plot
Effect of Measurement Datum
Changing Measurement Datum
State of Balance
Static and Dynamic Densities
Safe Mud Densities
Abnormal Pressure Mechanisms
Syntectonic (Lateral Compressive Stress)
Fluid Expansion Mechanisms
Hydrocarbon Generation and Cracking
Chemical and Diagenetic Changes
Other Diagenetic Transformations
Load Transfer Mechanism
Pressure Charging / Structural
Pressure Charging and Transfer
Salt and Shale Diapirs
Mechanism and Evaluation
Impact of Mechanism on Prediction and Evaluation
Impact on Well Planning
Seals, Cells and Compartments
Types of Seal
Cells and Compartments
Tilted Hydrocarbon Contacts
Case Study: Kraka Field, Danish Sector
North Sea Palaeogene Hydrodynamics Case Study
Formation Pressure Evaluation
PART 1: Curve Trend Line Analysis Methods and Pre-Well Prediction
Pore Pressure Prediction and Evaluation Basics
Importance of `shale’
Normal Compaction Trend (NCT)
Data Used in Trend Analysis
Quantitative Analysis Methods
Equivalent Depth or Matrix Stress Method
What Method Should Be Used?
Curve Trend Analysis – Well Data
Sonic log or ITT (Interval Transit Time)
Resistivity (Conductivity) log
LWD Wireline Curve Summary
Seismic Predictive Methods
Offset Well Data
Combining the Predictions
Part 2: Direct Pressure Measurements
Direct Pressure Measurements
Influxes and Kicks
Wireline and LWD Pressure Measurements
Drill Stem Tests
Fracture Pressure Measurements
LOTs and FITs
LOT Plots and Diagnoses
Mud Losses/Lost circulation
Wellbore Strengthening – ‘Stress Cage’
Measurement After Drilling (MAD)
Geologist’s Roles in Lost Circulation
Part 3: Indirect Pressure Indicators
Indirect Pressure Indicators
Drilling rate and Drilling Exponents.
Using Drill Rate in While-Drilling Evaluation
Using the Dxc
Drilling Terminology – Swab and Surge
Other Drilling Related Terminology
Typical Hole Conditions with increasing pressure
Trip Condition Log
Non Pore Pressure Related Hole Problems
Cuttings and Cavings
Cuttings Size and Appearance
Other Types of Caving
Monitoring Cuttings and Cavings Sizes
Typical Gas Reactions
Connection Gas uncertainty
Isolating gas events
Monitoring Gas Events
Geothermal Gradient and Temperature
Plotting the FLT data
Mud Resistivity/Conductivity (Chlorides)
Formation Pressure Prediction and Evaluation in Non-clastics
Non-clastics and Pore Pressure Prediction
Effect of Uncertainty in Well Planning
Formation Pressure Evaluation in non-clastics
Non-clastics case study
Part 4: Other Support Tools and Evaluation Process
Other Support Tools
LWD Tool Drilling Measurements and PWD
Hole conditioning monitoring
Mud Flow In and Out/Pit levels
Pressure Evaluation Process
Pressure Evaluation Software
Basic Pressure Evaluation
Identification of Wellbore Breathing
Post Well Evaluation
End of Well Reporting
Starting from the very basics this course describes how we predict, calculate and evaluate overburden, fracture and pore pressures as well as subsurface stresses and how they are related. Theories of how overpressures are generated will be discussed, how these pressures are subsequently modified and how they impact on hydrocarbon generation and migration, well planning and risk identification as well as evaluation techniques.
- Basics of subsurface pressures and stresses and their interrelationships.
- Overburden pressures.
- Fracture pressure calculation and measurement using leak-off tests.
- Leak-off tests, FITs and XLOTs and their interpretation.
- Earth stresses and how they can cause wellbore instability.
- How overpressures develop and change through time.
- The centroid concept and pressure transfer.
- Impact of formation pressures on well planning and risk management.
- Pore pressure prediction and real-time evaluation using trend analysis.
- Identification of wellbore instability mechanisms
- Use of indicators such as hole conditions, shale caving and gas in pressure evaluations
- Pressure evaluation in non-clastic environments (carbonates/evaporites etc.)
The objectives are supported by numerous exercises and case studies.
Who Should Attend
Wellsite and operations geologists, drilling engineers and subsurface geologists/geophysicists. This course assumes little or no prior knowledge of formation pressures but will require an understanding of geology, drilling activities and associated terminologies.
Continuing Professional Development
35 HOURS CPD